Herbal Cranberry, a Potential and Natural Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Tumor

By Kyle J. Norton

The esophagus formed part of the digestive system is a muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) with the stomach located behind the trachea and heart and in front of the spine.

Cancer is a group of chronic diseases associated with irregular cell growth that start in the cell on the surface of the inner lining tissue of the specific gland and organ before penetrating into deeper layers to form tumors through unlimited cell cycle division.

Over time, most cancers have become progressively worse and spread to other organs in the body via lymph or blood.

 Esophageal cancer is not very uncommon in the US caused by malignant cells of the esophagus due to cell DNA alternation.

Primary esophageal cancer has been found to spread to the bottom of the esophagus, stomach, and chest.

According to the statistics, compared to the US, esophageal cancer is more often diagnosed in other parts of the world and the seventh most common cause of cancer death among men.

Believe it or not, every year, the disease causes the death of 16,000 individuals, including 13,000 men and 3,000 women,


Compared to other cancers the 5-year survival rate for people with esophageal cancer is only 19%.

The exact causes of esophageal cancer are unidentified. However, according to the epidemiological studies, aging, male gender, smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, genetic preposition, obesity, thermal injury to the esophagus are some prevalent factors that increase the risk of the disease.
Some researchers suggested that the increased incidences of esophageal cancer in the Western world over the past few decades may be correlated to the promotion of a high-fat diet.

Dr. Silvano Gallus wrote, “Over the last 30 years, the incidence of squamous-cell carcinoma has decreased in several areas of the world, but adenocarcinoma has risen by over fourfold in the US as well as in Australia and several areas of Europe; its incidence has particularly increased in men”.

And, ” diets high in saturated fat and cholesterol have been associated with an increased risk (of esophageal cancer)”.

Cranberry is an evergreen dwarf shrub, genus Vaccinium, belongings to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern America and Southern Asia. Because of its health benefits, cranberry has been cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial profit and used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat wounds, urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of gastrointestinal tumor, researchers examined the effect of a purified cranberry-derived proanthocyanidin extract (C-PAC) on esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines, including acid-sensitive JHAD1 and OE33 cells, and esophageal tumor xenografts in athymic NU/NU mice.

According to the tested assays, C-PAC shared a strong activity in inducing the expression of a protein associated with cell death programming mainly in JHAD1 and OE33 cells.

Autophagy that promotes cancer cell growth and anti-apoptosis of JHAD1 and OE33 cells were also inhibited by the injection of C-PAC.

In vitro, C-PAC induced cell death was attributed to deactivation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways expression in the promotion of cancer cellular processes, including cell survival, growth, and differentiation.

Additionally, C-PAC not only inhibited the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-xL, Cytochrome C, PARP), pathways involved in the occurrence and progression of cancer, but also exhibited the expression of proteins that induces cell cycle arrest.


Similarly, in vivo, oral delivery of C-PAC significantly inhibited OE19 tumor xenograft growth as the aforementioned activities.
In other words, in vitro and vivo purified cranberry-derived proanthocyanidin extract (C-PAC) eradicate the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells through several mechanisms involved in pro-apoptosis, anti-anti-apoptosis and blocking cellular division.

Based on the finding, researchers after taking other factors into account wrote, ” C-PAC is a potent inducer of EAC cell death and is efficacious in vivo at non-toxic behaviorally achievable concentrations, holding promise for preventive or therapeutic interventions in cohorts at increased risk for EAC, a rapidly rising and extremely deadly malignancy”.

Taken altogether, cranberry extract may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of esophageal cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Dietary feeding of freeze-dried whole cranberry inhibits intestinal tumor development in Apcmin/+ mice by Jin D#1, Liu T#1, Dong W1, Zhang Y2, Wang S1, Xie R1, Wang B1, Cao H. (PubMed)
(2) Is There a Link Between Diet and Esophageal Cancer? by Silvano Gallus, and Carlo La Vecchia. (Medscape)