Bromelain, the Anti-Obesity Functional Remedy

By Kyle J. Norton

Obesity is a chronic and medical condition associated with excessive fat accumulation over time.

According to the BMI index, a person is considered overweight, if he/she has a BMI between 25 to 29.9 kg/m2. A BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more is an indication of obese.
In other words, obesity is a progressive chronic disease characterized by abnormal fat accumulation in the body tissues that may impair health.

Similar to other chronic medical condition including diabetes, cardiovascular disease or high blood pressure, obesity has recently become a serious health problem in the US as nearly 35% of Americans are obese accompanied by a similar percentage of overweight adults.
Epidemiologically, obesity does not only have serious effects on physical and psychological health but also has a strongly negative impact on the patients quality of life.

Today, the widespread obesity in the US population have caused a significant economic impact on the U.S. health care system, including direct and indirect costs.

The Milken Institute wrote, “The burden of obesity, and the chronic diseases for which it is a contributing factor, has reached record economic heights. In 2016, chronic diseases driven by the risk factor of obesity and overweight accounted for $480.7 billion in direct health care costs in the U.S., with an additional $1.24 trillion in indirect costs due to lost economic productivity. The total cost of chronic diseases due to obesity and overweight was $1.72 trillion — equivalent to 9.3 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). Obesity as a risk factor is by far the greatest contributor to the burden of chronic diseases in the U.S., accounting for 47.1 percent of the total cost of chronic diseases nationwide”.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

In the concern of the rise of obese incidence in the world, researchers examined the phytotherapeutic protein stem bromelain (SBM) anti-obesity activity.

In the cellular levels, SBM irreversibly inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in the expression of the obese gene product (leptin) in white adipose and induced apoptosis and lipolysis in mature adipocytes.

At the molecular level, SBM suppressed adipogenesis by inhibiting gene expression of PPARγ in developing obesity.

Furthermore, SBM also reduced the secretion of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2) associated with obese glucose and lipid metabolism and fatty acid synthase (FAS) involved food intake and body weight.


Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which leads to increased lipid partitioning to other tissues, insulin resistance, and obesity and gene CD36 CD36 associated with a number of metabolic pathways with relevance to obesity and enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) involved the biosynthesis and metabolism of fatty acids also inhibited by the injection of SBM.

Moreover, SBM was found to augment the expression of TNFα(tumor necrosis factor alpha) -induced lipolysis and apoptosis in mature adipocytes, another indication of anti-obesity properties.

Where TNFα(tumor necrosis factor alpha) has been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance.

The results strongly supported the use of SBM  for the prevention of obesity in an animal model.
Additionally, according to the study led by the University of British Columbia, bromelain from papaya and pineapple may be used to control obesity and obese complications such as hypertension, diabetes.
Taken altogether, bromelain used alone or combined with other herbal medicines may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of neurodegeneration, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Inhibition of adipogenesis and induction of apoptosis and lipolysis by stem bromelain in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by Dave S1, Kaur NJ, Nanduri R, Dkhar HK, Kumar A, Gupta P. (PubMed)
(2) Plant proteases for bioactive peptides release: A review by Mazorra-Manzano MA1, Ramírez-Suarez JC2, Yada RY. (PubMed)
(3) The economic burden of obesity and diabetes by November 6, 2018, by Jennifer Calihan. (Diet Doctor)